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street from the world famous peabody hotel. it happened across the street. it is near a minor league baseball stadium which was crowded with fans who had gathered to see a game and a fourth of july fireworks show. and police say a suspect is in custody. again, make sure you stay tuned to american morning 6:00 a.m. go i'm don lemon at the cnn headquarters in atlanta. see you next weekend. good night. -- captions by vitac -- >> the shuttle has cleared the tower. >> reporter: a spacecraft that launches like a rocket and lands like a plane. >> touchdown. >> reporter: the beginning of a remarkable era. >> what we did in shutting over 30 years dwarfs what was done in the apollo era. >> reporter: but 135 missions later, the space shuttle program is being eliminated. what's next for nasa? >> you know, mars has been 20 years in the future for the last 30 years.
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>> reporter: and could commercial space travel be on the horizon? hello. i'm john zarrella, and this is the space shuttle "atlantis." on the 17th of may, it rolled from the orbiter processing facility to the vehicle assembly building a quarter-mile away. the last time a shuttle would make the journey. bringing a glorious, sometimes tragic, era one step closer to the end. but was it worth it? three decades in low earth orbit not venturing outward. if you ask the man commanding the last shuttle flight -- >> it was a successful program. we essentially have command of low earth orbit. >> reporter: if you ask the men who walked on the moon --
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>> once you've been to the moon, staying home is not good enough. i'm an exploration guy. i want to go where man has never gone before. before gene, the last man to make his walk on the moon a journey, man had a reusable spacecraft. >> i have a model of the shuttle. >> from the beginning, it was a marvelous machine releasing from its cargo bay deep space probes like ulysses that went to jupiter. astronauts went untethered to capture and retrieve failed satellites, dead in space, dangerous feats unheard of before shuttle.
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the great observatory hubble, dazzles with breathtaking images of the universe and its ability to see galaxies born nearly at the dawn of time. >> shuttle has arrived on-board "atlantis." >> hubble was launched, repaired and serviced from shuttle. every major building block of the football field-long space station was carried up and assembled from shuttle. before becoming nasa's head man, charlie bolden was an astronaut. he flew four shuttle flights, including the hubble launch. >> the international space station is the crowning jewel of the shuttle program. it represents the culmination, it's the perfect ending for the shuttle program. >> and it did something else. before the shuttle, not a single woman or person of color had flown on a u.s. spacecraft. >> my going to space -- you know, if i want to get personal -- or women going to space would have never occurred without the space shuttle.
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>> the shuttle was proclaimed and sold as a vehicle that could fly 25 or 30 times a year. it never did. jeff greecen was on president obama's blue ribbon committee that laid out pathways for future u.s. space exploration. >> if you think the goal was develop low-cost reliable space transportation, in that it was not successful. >> and it never produced revolutionary, scientific or medical break-throughs. in the early years, nasa pushed to prove shuttles could fly often. the weather was often a problem. no more so than on a brutally cold january morning in 1986. >> it all boiled down to it was human arrogance. the top management was not listening to the engineers on the line. >> warnings that it was too cold
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to launch were ignored. "challenger" exploded less than two minutes into flight. a joint in one of the boosters compromised by the frigid temperature failed. the shuttle would never be viewed again as the answer to inexpensive safe access to space. this is the altar? >> yeah. >> you have a lot of explaining to do. coors can. the lite can. >> the baseball. he played a lot of ball. >> lorna onizuka rarely talks about what happened and the years since. her husband was one of the seven on board "challenger." >> al and i understood something could happen. we just kind of hoped it never would.
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>> >> reporter: obviously he was okay with accepting the risk. >> he did. he was very well prepared for it. >> lorna's deepest heartache was for her two daughters. >> she came in and she said "i want you to die today." i was like really stunned and before i could say anything, she said but you become alive again on tuesday. i don't know what day it was. but -- so i said, why? and she said because i need to ask daddy some things, then he can be dead again and you can come alive. but i have to ask him some things. >> lorna didn't go to shuttle launches for five years after the accident. since then, she's been to nearly all of them. it is sad, she says, to see it end. you think it was worth it? >> yeah, i do. i think a lot of it is because i think albert would have thought it was worth it. >> three, two, one, touchdown. >> the shuttle program came back
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from "challenger" and came back then from "columbia," lost reentering the atmosphere. debris was scattered across north texas. and although tarnished, the shuttle has been america's only way to put humans in space. >> i defy anybody -- and i will argue with my "apollo" comrades -- the accomplishments, the achievements, the record of performance, the spin-offs, the capabilities that have been developed, what we did in shuttle over 30 years dwarf what was done in the "apollo" era. >> we can build spacecraft. we can build hardware. we can build boosters. but there's no goal. there's no mission. we are wandering in the desert in space today, period. >> so why now? why call it quits now? from the time of its inception
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40 years ago, until the shuttles are retired, the program will have cost the american taxpayers just shy of $115 billion. that's less than $4 billion a year. a drop, if that, in the federal budget. still, the problem is money. >> there's just not enough money at nasa to continue the existing programs and start a new program at the same time. >> but its ending now leaves a gaping hole. >> the nation was not very disciplined in developing the replacement for shuttle so that we wouldn't find ourselves where we are at now. >> where we are right now is relying on the russians to ferry our astronauts to and from the space station at a cost of $63 million a seat.
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>> we're ceding that leadership ban to the same people by a different name. they're russians today. they were soviets then. we're saying, okay, here it is, we're giving it back to you. >> once "atlantis" lands bringing the shuttle program to a close, there's no other choice until commercial space companies are ready. that's more than three years away, and nasa won't have its own new rocket ready until at least 2016. but there's no turning back. was it time? >> yes, it was time. and it has been time for some time to phase out of shuttle and go back to exploration. >> whether you hated it or hailed it, whether you felt it a waste or worth it, the shuttle was an iconic flying machine that symbolized america's inspiration and ingenuity. >> this is the crew hatch to the shuttle "discovery."
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she made 39 trips to space. eye take you inside with one of her commanders coming up. in here, the planned combination of at&t and t-mobile would deliver our next generation mobile broadband experience to 55 million more americans, many in small towns and rural communities, giving them a new choice. we'll deliver better service, with thousands of new cell sites... for greater access to all the things you want, whenever you want them. it's the at&t network... and what's possible in here is almost impossible to say. different jobs... ♪ ...different challenges. ♪ different opportunities. ♪ so why would universities stay the same? ♪
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i never thought this would happen, an opportunity to actually step inside of the space shuttle, if i can get in. i know most of the astronauts are a little bit smaller than i am. this is great, man. wow. >> welcome aboard the space shuttle "discovery." >> thank you, commander. >> so we're on the mid deck right now. >> these days, bob cabana runs the kennedy space center. before that, he just happened to be an astronaut. flew in space four times, twice as pilot, twice as commander. his first two trips, he was pilot of "discovery," he knows every inch. how many seated on the mid deck? >> if you're flying a crew of seven, you've got three folks down here. one here and two more here. >> discovery is the first vehicle being retired. when all the clean-up is done, stuff like freon, ammonia, cryogenics and pyrotechnics, she'll be turned over to the smithsonian. not easy, says stephanie stillson. i caught up with her earlier in
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the day. >> there's not a single person at kennedy space center that didn't want to continue to fly the shuttles. >> for 11 years her job as flow director was to make sure "discovery" was ready to fly. her job now -- make sure "discovery" is museum ready. >> and we do think of "discovery" as a family member. we've taken care of her for all these years and it is going to be hard for many people to realize that we're no longer responsible for that, that someone else has to do that for us. so it is going to be a big change for some folks. >> stillson always dreamed of being a launch director. no woman has ever held that job. but for now, nasa has nothing for her to launch. back on-board -- >> let's take a look. >> -- crawl about 12 feet. i'm going to drag these cables in, too. on the other end is the shuttle's cargo bay, spacious enough to hold a school bus. over the 39 flights of
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"discovery," dozens of astronauts in space suits have been at this exact vantage point waiting to step out to repair a satellite or build the space station. >> grab the hand-hold here and then just keep coming, put a hand up here, and can you pull yourself right on up. >> we're climbing the ladder to the flight deck. in the weightlessness of space you'd just float your way up. i'm allowed the privilege of the commander's seat. there's a lot of buttons here. i guess i shouldn't touch. >> john, here we are on the flight deck of "discovery." the commander sits in the left seat. the pilot sits in the right seat. >> the windows are covered with sun shields. >> there's three window panes. there's a pressure pane, a protective pane and a thermal pane. >> so there's three layers of glass. >> about this thick. >> each one. >> each one, yeah. you know how you get rock chips in your star bursts in your windshield? >> yeah. >> everyone of my flights i've
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had micrometeorite pings from something hitting it. >> sitting here, cabana is reminded of a lift-off on "endeavour." >> what a ride! just the sense of speed and acceleration. >> there's the main engine start. pretty soon you'll see the srbs. a lot of shaking and vibrating. >> you're pushed back in your seat and the last minute you hit that 3g acceleration. all of a sudden you come forward in your seat like that. >> you really know you're going to space. i tell you, on my first flight i not look out the windows. i was staring right at the main engine. >> were you a pilot. >> right here. i was making sure everything was working the way it was supposed to work. i was not looking out the window. i have to admit, all my flights were unique. that's like asking which one of your kids is your favorite. i think that last flight. >> we have booster ignition and lift-off of the space shuttle "endeavour" with the first element of the international space station. >> being able to go inside the
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space station for the first time -- >> it's unbelievable. >> so many people have tried to describe what it's like when you're on re-entry. what you're seeing coming back. >> what i remember is just this orange-white glow out the window. little pieces of -- sparks flying back. when we landed i did not want to get out of the commander seat. they were trying to get me out. it's like this is my spaceship, you can't have it. i didn't want it to end. you know? i just wanted it to go on. it was great. >> and now, it really has. coming up -- the booster ignites, the flame pours from its nozzle. the end of an era is here. lo su, sweet as you can be ♪ [ female announcer ] wake up to sweetness with honey nut cheerios cereal. kissed with real honey.
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the train rolls south down florida's east coast. it passes crossings at st. augustine, flagler beach, daytona, new smyrna. under the protective tarps, the last space shuttle's solid rocket boosters. destination -- the kennedy space center. on-board, people who build them, launch them, and ride them to space. all that is clear is uncertainty.
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what do you do when the shuttle stops flying, mike? >> well, let's see. i'm the launch director and there will be no launches to direct. and so i don't really know. >> in both years and miles, the end of the line is much, much closer now. three months earlier, a couple thousand miles from florida, a transporter moved slowly through the falling snow. it is carrying one of those last massive booster segments to the railyard 20 miles away. without the boosters, space shuttles could not fly. this is promontory, utah, north of salt lake city, home to atk aerospace systems. for 37 years, they have been testing and building the shuttle's solid rocket boosters here.
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>> this is a typical space shuttle segment. >> for 34 of those years, phil says he's touched the heavens with each booster he's helped build. can you imagine you spent your -- i mean a good portion of your adult life building components for a space vehicle. >> yes. but it's been the most wonderful experience that i've really had. it's been my life since i was 21. >> and a way of life passed from generation to generation. >> we spent a period of about 50 years between my father hired on in 1959, retiring in 1990, i came out like i told you, in '77, and it's just been our livelihood. i have two boys now that are currently employed here. >> there are many here just like phil. the ride has been good but it's over. they know it. yet they press ahead with their
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work. as each of the last booster segments is loaded on the transporters, the future becomes more uncertain. where do they go from here? what do they do next? in the past two years, 2,100 people have been laid off. 45% of the workforce. they've seen tough times here before. >> lift-off of the 25th space shuttle mission. >> flight controller here's looking very carefully at the situation. obviously a malfunction. >> 1986, a failed seal in one of the boosters built here led to the accident. >> this place mourned, just like anybody else. it was a part of us and it was a tough moment. with public opinion a little sour, we persevered and went through the redesign and we have produced reliable motors for the past 20 years. totally reliable.
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>> this is the forward segment? >> forward segment. >> jeff and his son, ryan, both work here. uncertainty is frightening. >> whether i have to go to another industry, if i have to go move out of state, those type of things. that's what goes through my mind as we finish this up, is the anxiety for the future. >> for ryan's dad, the anxiety is not just for himself an his son. it doesn't sit well -- not at all -- that shuttle is ending and there's nothing to replace well. it doesn't sit well -- not at all -- that for at least a few years the u.s. will have to rely on someone else's rocket to get to the space station. >> at least in my mind, you would think that we would want to employ our people rather than give russia or other people the opportunity to take our astronauts in space. we need jobs. >> the job in promontory is not quite over. a solid rocket booster, 126 feet
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long, and 12 feet in diameter, sits in a test stand. in a bunker not far away, the team runs through a countdownhersal. the booster is identical to the ones being shipped to the space center. the test will ensure the manufacturing processes are absolutely perfect. this will be the 52nd test since 1977. also the last. >> the countdown is proceeding. >> the event is historic. two days later on a mild february morning, thousands of people with their children and their cameras have come to watch. the booster ignites. the flame pours from its nozzle. in two minutes, it's done. nearly four decades of building
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shuttle boosters is over. the ride down florida's east coast is nearly over, too. the train is not far from the kennedy space center. the reality is difficult to digest. >> mostly, i feel so very lucky for just an ordinary guy like myself to have been lucky enough to participate in something like this. it's been real special. >> in both years and miles, the end of the line is now much, much closer. so where is nasa going next? well, while the destination may still be unclear, the training has already begun right here in the waters of the florida keys. ♪ ♪ hah
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hello, everyone, i'm don lemon live at the cnn wo after a shooting in downtownwmc at the doubletree hotel. to a shooting call at the crowded minor leaguey across the street ped jurorse casey anthony se before the case goes to the kil
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she could face the convicted. i'm don headquarters in atltahour. cnn, the most trd e 117 million om future, astronauts could beg ouong it, or i can have a tether to me, ca >> this astronaut and his team . before either the moon or mars. a simulated asteroid underwater ctive.ech laboratory. >> not everything they're developings t. >> this is a soil collection device.pick up without touching. able earth tested device. pooper-scooper could be used on scooper could u soil on an asteroid, yeah. you ? ju g beneath the surface at the site
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near weightless environment of rock wall, like a climbing wall. zero gravity. >> with the shuttla outward. does best. stop, a baby step. because there's no gravity and an asteroid to be ch to get around? well, how about this? a multi-mission space at houston's johnson space 's t budie're going down to the crater now. hang on. >> i bet you want to be in my d. two weeks in this vehicle.two w on the ground.says, an >> instead of having to come home e yard. >> you'll see in a second just holl look, there's a cameraman on ho? see his vehicle attached to theh asonit. but before it can go any further there's one big problem -- trick. space missions and it's simply nasa administrator charlie >> crazy people like me, we'll anything.but in order to expand
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capability to bring more peopl vehicle that had a capability than the old "apollo" capsules a safer thanhu astronauts a better chance of but to get the crew and all of ight ey out of the needs look a bit like this, because it's going to b including a main fuel tank and reusable boosters that splash r. >> are recovered by divers and that i have difficulty finding the mission for.obama's blue ro committee on exploration. for nasa to maintain.t if nasa to do anything with it. >> it's a matter of na >> norm augustine chaired the he says if >> china will try to do something very dramatiothers wi. perhaps the russians. moving ahead a developing its space program. shuttle fl wtalk of trips back ll the futhe future for the last 30 years. >> i'm not doing too bad.
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>> an opportunity to drive mike gernhart's vehicle pass me by.ft include space, it may be the coming up -- is it timr we are exploring the stars, wh great things that we read about. we spend them on treadmills. tle help with your mortgage, well, you know, you're in luck. mortgage rigamarole, whatnot. announcer: if you're facing foreclosure,
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t minus ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two -- >> there are many amongst us who are visionaries. >> we have lift-off of the "falcon 9." >> who are pioneers, who are dreamers. but only a handful with deep enough pockets to do what only governments have done before. venture off this planet. >> people used to say to me, look, it would be impossible to go with your own spaceship and your own spaceship company and be able to take people into space. that's the kind of challenge that i love to sort of prove them wrong. >> you want to see a future where we are exploring the stars, where we're going to other planets, where we're doing the great things we read about in science fiction and in the movies.
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>> elon musk runs spacex. richard branson heads virgin galactic. both are using their considerable wealth to back bold attempts to make space travel as routine as boarding an airplane. >> we want to make space accessible to everyone. i mean that's a revolutionary change but it is incredibly exciting. >> there are several companies, some big, some small, who see, as nasa moves on to distant planets, that weightless region just above the atmosphere, just out of reach right now, becoming quite possibly a good investment. >> nasa's still in there, still going to develop a heavy-lift rocket. but we've got this hopefully flowering of private spaceflight and that's what's going to get us the hiltons and hertz rent-a-cars in orbit. >> spacex and virgin galactic
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are on the verge of not just opening -- >> lift-off! >> -- but stepping through that door to the future. southeast of elephant butte dam on the rio grande river, not part from truth or consequences, new mexico, you come to a place down the end of a long two-lane road. here in the middle of nowhere, under a high blue sky, is space port america. >> i always say it is where old frontier meets the new frontier. >> chris anderson is executive director of the new mexico space port. this build the world's first commercial space port nestled between the san andreas and the caballos mountains, taxpayers anted up $207 million.
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a leap of faith. >> well, there's always risk in great opportunity. so there is a risk but i see more opportunity out there. i think, again, the time is right for commercial space. >> the centerpiece is the terminal hangar facility. the anchor tenant -- branson's virgin galactic company. the hangar will be home to virgin's mother ships and space ships. a year-and-a-half from now, if all the test flights go well, a mothership will take off down this runway, climb the 50,000 feet and release a space plane tucked beneath it. the six civilian astronauts and two pilots will climb to 350,000 feet and experience weightlessness for four minutes. the price tag for the round trip -- $200,000. branson and his family hold the
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first tickets. >> we've got extensive tests over the next 15 months before myself and my children go into space and my wife won't forgive me if i don't bring the kids back. >> branson alludes to the risk. his spaceship employs unique technology as it descends back to earth, the tail section rotates to a 65-degree angle, creating drag and slowing the vehicle. but that word "risk" creeps in to every conversation about the retirement of shuttle and the commercialization of space. there is no denying it, no getting away from it. >> i consider it a risk. with big risks, it's like investments. come big rewards. we could also lose. >> communications with "columbia" were lost at about 8:00 a.m. central time. >> risk. you just accept it. >> can you imagine how much difficulty people went through and how scared they were in the transition from horses to cars?
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but you got to make these transitions. otherwise society doesn't move forward. >> so far, musk's spacex "falcon 9" rocket has performed well. on the last test, the rocket put a spacecraft called "dragon" into orbit. capsule landed back in the pacific. it was the first time anyone other than a government had successfully orbited a spacecraft and returned it to earth. >> we designed this to be super tough. you can beat the snot out of it and it will still work. >> next year musk hopes to begin carrying cargo to the international space station. eventually astronauts, a commercial company, replacing the space shuttle. but unless it's safe, nasa's administrator says no u.s. astronaut will be on board. >> i cannot allow them to put us
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in jeopardy by not focusing on crew safety and the like. that's my job. >> the stakes are high. there is no turning back. >> please welcome the future of space shuttle. >> with the shuttle retired and astronauts left to ride russian space ships, nasa is counting on commercial companies to get it right, make it work. and the more who make it work, the more affordable it will become. >> that's the end of a particular era, and it's up to individuals like myself, if you're in a position to be able to achieve wonderful things, not to waste that position. >> lift-off of the "falcon 9." when we return -- saying good-bye to an american icon. >> i will be as proud as anybody there at the slf when we land.
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um -- this is hard. sweet as you♪ [ female announcer ] wake up to sweetness with honey nut cheerios cereal. kissed with real honey. and the 100% natural whole grain oats can help lower your cholesterol. you are so sweet to me. bee happy. bee healthy.
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you are so sweet to me. ♪ sing polly wolly doodle all the day ♪ ♪ hah
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april 12th, 1981. for astronauts john young and robert crippen, this was finally the day. they would be the first to fly it to space. the new space transportation system, sts, called the shuttle, had seen its share of development problems and delays. >> those tiles kept flying off. engines falling off. before it ever flew. we thought it would be a good idea to fix those. >> young was the veteran. walking and riding on the moon during during "apollo 16,"
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crippen was the rookie. >> it was only when we got inside after minute i looked at john and said i think we're really going to do it. that's when my heart rate went up. >> t minus ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, we've gone from main engine start. >> the first stage, 8 1/2 minutes while you're under thrust goes by so fast. on my first flight my eyes were like saucers so that seemed like about 15 seconds. >> john, your heart rate hardly went up at all, bob's went up to about 130. >> i was excited. >> i was bored to tears. >> were you confident that you guys were going to get back okay? >> well, we had ejection seats. if things went really south, we could jump out. >> roger "columbia" on the nice ride. you're lofting a little bit. >> we were doing lots of stuff so we didn't really have time to concentrate too much on -- hey, finally did it. but we did take a moment every
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now and then to look out the window and enjoy it. >> "columbia" houston, you guys did so good, we're going for let you stay up there for a couple days. >> we managed to fly the whole planned mission. not got cut short and everything worked fine. >> everything worked. that was amazing part. especially on re-entry, we didn't get burned up. >> mach 9 at 9,700 feet per second. >> when we come back, i said -- >> what a way to come back to california. it had been two days, six hours and 21 minutes since people crowded into cocoa beach and cape canaveral for the launch. now nearly 30 years later, half a million people staked out their spots in the same places. among them, bobby tenpin. he was 18 when his uncle, an aerospace company employee brought him to see the lift-off. now he was back.
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>> this is the end of an era. decades long era. there will be nothing like it again. >> from georgia, bobby brought his kids this time. spencer is 10. >> it's going to be awesome. >> and he's 12. >> it's going to be a little dot in the sky. >> it's going to be big, brier. >> maybe. >> on a warm february afternoon, "discovery" was about to make its final flight. history to be witnessed. >> i wake them up in the middle of the night, take them out into the middle of the country to look at asteroid, meteor showers and i want them to see the space shuttle take off. i've seen them and i want them to have the same opportunity. >> people pass the time playing games. >> double double duck duck. >> gazing through binoculars, reading, waiting. >> we have how many minutes? >> 35. >> so close. what could go wrong now? then, murphy's law struck.
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>> there's a problem with a computer. they got to work through the problem. got 20 minutes to get the problem fixed. >> oh, great. >> got to see it. the kids got to see it. >> they did. nasa resolved the problem. >> 20 seconds. 20 seconds. >> "discovery" lifted off. >> there it goes! go! go! go! >> for the thousands here, a moment etched in their collective memories. >> look at it! >> woo-hoo! >> oh, that's so cool! >> a moment to be savored, analyzed. >> i thought it would be a little louder. >> and of course, matured over time. >> i feel very lucky. >> for lorna onizuka, with every launch, there is a nod to the heavens and her husband, ellison, who died on "challenger." he accepted that risk and paid the price. >> i want to thank him for
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watching over these guys in the years since, because i think he does. shares their pride, shares their excitement, shares their glory. just from a different angle. >> the shuttle program has, and will be, celebrated, debated and critiqued. did it serve its purpose? was it worth the cost in both money and lives? when "atlantis" comes home, the 135th mission, when the wheels stop, it will become part of history. >> there's going to be a nostalgia for the shuttle. were we ever that audacious to go build spacecraft to do things like that? >> i will be as proud as anybody there at the slf when we land.
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>> um -- this is hard. um, i shed tears of joy. we have done what i wanted to do. we have safely flown out of the
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CNN Presents
CNN July 3, 2011 8:00pm-8:53pm PDT

Beyond Atlantis The Next Frontier News/Business. (2011) The space shuttle program and the future of NASA. (CC)

program was likely cut short due to a recording issue

TOPIC FREQUENCY Nasa 15, Florida 4, Us 4, Branson 4, Cnn 3, America 3, Phil 2, Jack 2, U.s. 2, Lorna Onizuka 2, New Mexico 2, Lorna 2, At&t 2, Houston 2, Crippen 1, Bob 1, Polly Wolly 1, John 1, Robert Crippen 1, Butte 1
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